Reverse differential backup tool, over a network or locally.
This page describes the intended reaction of rdiff-backup to
various errors which may occur during a backup session. Subject to
various limitations (see below), no error should cause rdiff-backup to
lose data. The below should be accurate for rdiff-backup versions
0.11.2 and later.
Firstly, note that rdiff-backup cannot correctly respond to every
possible error that could occur. For instance, rdiff-backup may not
correctly handle programming errors I have caused, even though these
may exist. In particular, rdiff-backup assumes that:
- The rdiff-backup destination directory is only written to by
rdiff-backup. If other programs modify the directory structure of the
destination directory, or regular files in that directory,
unanticipated circumstances could arise.
- The underlying file system respects calls like fsync(), which
require that data be physically written to disk in a certain order.
Also the file system needs to maintain its own integrity, including
treating certain operations like rename() as atomic. This could
become important if the computer is reset during an rdiff-backup
The anticipated errors fall into four categories:
- Recoverable errors: These errors may prevent
rdiff-backup from backing up particular files or directories, but the
rdiff-backup session as a whole may be successful. Any errors caused
the source directory changing during an rdiff-backup session should be
recoverable. When a recoverable error occurs, information is written
to the error log indicating the type of error, the filename the error
occurred on, and the error message.
- 1. File stat()ing/directory listing/permission
errors: These errors occur when a directory cannot be listed,
a file cannot be statted, or a regular file lacks read permissions.
Directory listing errors can happend when a directory changes to a
different type of file as rdiff-backup is listing it. These are
called ListErrors in the error log.
When a file cannot be statted or it is a regular file and it lacks
read permissions, rdiff-backup will treat it as not existing. A
directory that cannot be listed will be treated as if it does not
contain any files. Thus the corresponding file(s) in the mirror
directory will be removed (although they can still be recovered from
the increments that will be written).
- 2. Special file creation errors: These errors
occur when rdiff-backup tries and fails to create a special file in
the destination directory. Special files include pipes, device files,
sockets, and fifos. Error log lines starting with SpecialFileError
indicate this kind of error.
These errors are logged, but are not considered serious because
they cause no data loss. Restores will recover the information about
special files from the metadata file and create them successfully. On
the destination side, 0 length regular files will be substituted for
the special files.
- 3. Updating errors: These errors occur when
rdiff-backup is trying to read regular files in the source directory
in order to update the corresponding file in the destination
directory. These are usually caused by a file being modified as
rdiff-backup is processing it. The error log calls these
When this type of error occurs, rdiff-backup will pretend that the
file is the same as it is in the destination directory. For an
incremental backup, this means that no new increment will be
written, and the mirror copy will not be updated.
- 4. Unrecoverable errors: Errors not described above
are unrecoverable. Some examples are: running out of space on the
destination directory, the user aborting by pressing Cntl-C, the
rdiff-backup process being killed with SIGKILL or SIGTERM, or the
computer crashing during an rdiff-backup session.
Because rdiff-backup may not be able to respond, it does nothing
but quit in the face of an unrecoverable error. However, if the
aborted session was an incremental backup, the rdiff-backup
destination directory will be in a recognizably intermediate state.
When the next backup is run into that directory, rdiff-backup will fix
it before starting normal backup operations. Restores from that
directory will fail, although the directory can be fixed by running
rdiff-backup with the --check-destination-dir option.
This "fixing" mentioned above involves regressing the destination
directory to the state it was in after the last successful
rdiff-backup. Thus for practical purposes, an rdiff-backup session
that ends in an unrecoverable error simply did not occur. Any errors
that occur during the process of regressing the destination directory
are considered unrecoverable and treated the same way.
Last modified: Sun Feb 23 22:05:08 PST 2003